Autophagy: Self Eating Process

Ashik Chhetri

Dr. B.C. ROY College of Pharmacy & Allied Health Sciences, Durgapur, WB, India

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Autophagy is a catabolic, naturally occurring cellular mechanism for degradation and recycling of cellular components. The process is mediated by the formation of a double membrane structure –the autophagosome. This review includes the regulation of autophagy, mechanism comprises of initiation, formation, membrane expansion, and fusion with lysosome. Regulatory pathway of autophagy is a complex one and associated with various proteins and metabolic pathways. mTOR plays a key role in regulation with the involvement of kinase like AMPK which is sensitive to cellular energy level (ATP) and the involvement of other regulatory proteins, TSC dependent or independent pathway in autophagy regulation is described here. Along with this growth factor and cellular stress signals in autophagy regulation are also included. Role of autophagy in maintaining cellular homeostasis and significance of autophagy in suppression of tumerogenesis along with recent development is discussed. Also the relation of autophagy in Alzheimer’s disease, infections has been highlighted briefly.

Keywords: Autophagosome, ATG, mTOR, ULK kinase

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