A review on the multifaceted pharmacological aspects of benzimidazole derivatives

Oleti Navneetha, Chikkula Krishnaveni, Anem Nnawyaa and Marri Ruthika Ratna Veni

Benzimidazoles have emerged as multifaceted scaffold among the various heterocyclic compounds, exhibiting wide range of pharmacological activities like anticancer, antibacterial, anhelminthic, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-allergic, coagulant, anticoagulant, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities and is gaining much more importance amongst the medicinal chemist to design, synthesize and discover newer benzimiazole derivatives for its diverse pharmacological activities. In the present review, we highlight the importance of benzimidazole scaffold as an important pharmacophore with various applications.

Abstract HTML PDF
Relationship of gut microbiota and immunity

Gauri Diggikar and Joyani Das

Microbiome that inhabits within the GIT tract contributes many health benefits to the host by regulating the immune homeostasis. Alterations of these gut microbial communities can cause immune dysregulation, resulting in autoimmune disorders. The mammalian intestine is colonized by trillions of microorganisms most of which are bacteria that have co-evolved with the host in a very symbiotic relationship. The gathering of microbial populations that resides on and within the host is commonly known as “microbiota”. A principle function of the microbiota is to protect the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens and potentially harmful indigenous microorganisms via several mechanisms, which include direct competition for limited nutrients and therefore the modulation of host immune responses. Understanding the interaction of the microbiota with pathogens and therefore the host might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of disease for preventing and treating intestinal and systemic disorders.

Abstract HTML PDF
A review on theranostic applications of carbon quantum dots in the treatment of cancer

Shalmoli Seth and Arindam Chatterjee

Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs/QDs) are nano sized, light emitting spherical particles with unique structural and functional properties. Presently, QDs are highly being used as the new class of fluorescent marker due to its distinctive electronic and imaging properties, high quality signaling, photo bleaching resistance, etc. Due to the aforementioned properties QDs are one of the most researched nanoparticles which can be used for both imaging and therapeutic purpose. Furthermore high selectivity, flexibility, solidity, and capability to penetrate various cells and organelles allows QDs in imaging and targeting the delivery of cancer therapeutics. However, despite all advantages QDs suffers major roadblocks due to poor biocompatibility, toxicity and aggregation of particles. Thus in this article we have reviewed the structural anatomy of QDs, various methods of synthesis, applications of QDs and various roadblocks of using QDs in living tissues.

Abstract HTML PDF
Paradigm shift of Indian pharma industry during covid-19 pandemic and beyond

Subhash C Mandal

Indian pharmaceutical Industry is well developed and recognized as the “Pharmacy of the World” because of its contribution to the people of the major portion of the world. It exported drugs to over 300 countries and vaccines to more than 250 countries, but its contribution in the area of drug development and discovery is not satisfactory. During Covid pandemic India has proved its ability for drug/vaccine development using indigenous technology. It is also registered a new trend of developing new drug/vaccine jointly by private entrepreneurs and government laboratories like-ICMR, CSIR etc. In order to quick development of drugs, government of India has taken several steps like- framing of new legislation - New Drugs and Clinical trial Rules, making provision for quick approval of new Covid-19 vaccines developed and marketed by developed countries. On the other hand new provisions were made to increase production capacity to make India self reliant under “Atmanirvar Bharat” mission. These initiatives resulted a Paradigm shift of the Indian Pharma Industry during Covid-19 pandemic and beyond from manufacturing to innovation.

Abstract HTML PDF
The evolving role of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in drug screening for lifestyle disorders: a narrative review

Raja Chakraverty and Sudeshna Sasmal

The aim of this review is to briefly illustrate both the advantages and the limitations of using zebrafish as a model system for lifestyle based human diseases and drug discovery. The availability of a model predictive animal model of disease is one of the cornerstone in the drug discovery and development. In this context, bibliographic searches were performed under Pubmed, Medline and Google scholar for articles indexed in these databases ranging from 2001 to 2021. Zebrafish has evolved as a suitable animal model organism for experimental pharmacology is expanding at a great rate to include lifestyle diseases of human. Lifestyle diseases are characterized by conditions which occur in primarily based on the way of living and occupational habits of individuals. Diseases that impact on our daily lifestyle are mainly obesity & diabetes. Nowadays, diabetes & obesity are considered as global epidemics. The prevalence rates of diabetes are increasing day by day in parallel with the rates of obesity. Research is ongoing for surgical and pathological management of obesity and diabetes. For identification and development of effective treatment the use of animal models are important. Zebrafish is poised to present as a unique model for human disease. In this study we discuss the advantages, disadvantages of pathology associated with diabetes & obesity by using zebrafish model. In consideration of these potential shortcomings, it is expected that zebrafish will not replace the classical mammalian test systems anytime soon, but rather complement them as a first step in vertebrate modelling of disease and aid the complex process of drug discovery.

Abstract HTML PDF
Osteoarthritis: a review

Koushik Pal

With the increase in lifespan of human being, the probability of suffering from metabolic disorder and lifestyle disease has increased manifold. Across the world, Osteoarthritis is a public health problem. Previously, it is thought to be a wear and tear disease of cartilage but with the advancement of molecular biology it can be known to be disease of polygenic in nature. Obesity related Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder mostly suffered by overweight persons and OA may be a lifestyle disease in some people. There are various types of arthritis affecting mankind and osteoarthritis is one of the common forms of arthritis. Details of signs and symptoms, pathogenesis, treatment, research in the areas of pain management are discussed here.

Abstract HTML PDF
Formulation and evaluation of herbal cream for skin care using extracts of Krishna Tulsi as active ingredient with anti-microbial activity

Puja Saha, Supriyo Das and Anupam Saha

Aim: The purpose of the present research work was to formulated and evaluated herbal cream. The objectives of this research work were to formulate the cream which does not cause any adverse or side effects, with anti-microbial properties.

Methodology: The present study was to prepare and evaluated the polyherbal cosmetics cream comprising extracts of natural products with Krishna Tulsi as the main active ingredient. The method utilized to prepare herbal cream was very lucid. Different types of formulation of oil in water (O/W) F1 to F5 were formulated by integrating different concentrations of stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, lanolin, propylene glycol, and potassium hydroxide. The evaluations of all parameters like pH, stability study, spreadability studies and anti-microbialstudy were examined.

Results: Several advantages are offered by Herbal creams over other creams. The majority of existing or others cream which has concocted from drugs of synthetic origin, such as acyclovir, triamcinolone, different drugs gives fairness to appearance, nonetheless it has several side effect such as irritating or several allergic reactions. Herbal cream sorts out to have nothing of any of these side effects, and helps fairness look to skin. Formulation F2 and F3 shows no edema, redness, irritation and inflammation during irritancy studies.

Conclusions: These studies suggested that composition of extracts and foundation of cream of F2 and F3 are more stable and safe. These formulations are safe to use for skin. From the prevailing examination and procured results it might be concluded that it's possible to broaden poly natural cream containing natural extracts having anti-oxidants belongings and which can be formulated to act as a barrier or to defend skin, also to make cosmetic cream.

Abstract HTML PDF
SARS-CoV-2 – present therapeutics scenario: a review

Jagadish Das, Devdip Dutta, Debarun Ghosh and Sushruta Chakraborty

The COVID-19 pandemic is considered as the most crucial global health calamity of the century and the greatest challenge that the humankind faced. Although several clinical trials are now underway to test possible therapies, the worldwide response to the COVID-19 outbreak has been largely limited to monitoring/containment. Taxonomically SARS CoV 2 belongs to the family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae and the order Nidovirrales. Subfamily Coronavirinae is divided into four genera- α, β, γ and δ. RBD is a fundamental peptide domain as it represents a binding site for the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In the course of treatment of SARS-CoV-2 there are hetergeous response was observed in trials and case studies. The major therapeutic agent was used was immunosuppressants like prednisolone assisted by other drugs which are mainly used other infective disorders but principal was those drug came from drug repurposing. Therapy was segregated in 2 objectives. First objective was to reduce and control the inflammatory responses and second objective was to reduce the viral load which is mainly focuses on the antivirals. Vaccine was also implanted as preventive measures but not proven to be fully prophylactic, in addition the vaccine was proven to control the disease severity that finally reduce the morbidity and mortality. Further research is mandatory specially encompasses on the epidemiological and epigenetical approaches.

Abstract HTML PDF
Joining hands and making alliances to develop new strategies in combating dangerous and deadly tuberculosis

Sunilkumar Bhikchand Bothara

Mycobacterium is now believed to be millions of years old. Cases of TB continue to rise due to the ability of M. tuberculosis to adapt and develop opportunistic infection strategies. Drug resistance is rampant in TB since the length of treatment leads to people falling off the regimen and the development of strains that are resistant to multiple anti-TB therapies, or multidrug-resistant TB.

Abstract HTML PDF
Drosophila in drug discovery & preclinical model

Soumik Bhattacharjee, Sumit Nandi and Aniruddha Mukherjee

Arthropods have innumerable species that has been used as the tool for discovery initially on toxicology for extracting venoms. Later multiple species were in the eye of researchers to correlate the genetical and physiological similarity with human and mammalian species. Drosophila was one of the major fly where mainly genetical experimentations were being conducted. Cancer being the one of tributaries of the same which was not only revealed the possibilities of screening model but also emphasized on various pathways of proteomics and drug targets. Our present review were a conglomerate of some of the pharmacological categories that has come up with numerous avenues of preclinical modeling and drug discovery associated with metabolic, cardiovascular, inflammation and infectious disease and depression.

Abstract HTML PDF
V-Smart Nanomedicine: a review on brain targeted drug delivery

Surita Ghosh, Tanmoy Patra

Brain specific drug delivery is a process of passing therapeutically active molecules across the Blood brain barrier (BBB) for treating the brain diseases. Most of the therapeutic agents do not reach the brain due to the tight junction presence in between the epithelial cells. Formulation of brain specific drug is a challenge for formulation scientist to treat several brain diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, brain cancer, trauma and cerebrovascular disease etc. Above-mentioned problems may be overcome by using different techniques like intracranial pumps, viral gene therapy, intra nasal therapy, intra-arterial therapy etc. But such methods have facing various difficulties like brain surgery or required some modification of drug molecules. V-smart nanomedicine is a newer technique which may be used in near future to overcome the problem related to brain targeted drug delivery system. In this system therapeutic agents are successfully reached into the brain without disrupting BBB and also it has high encapsulating efficacy. The innovative v-smart drug delivery is universal, versatile, flexible and able to overcome difficulties or limitation associated with other brain targeted drug delivery system. Under the V smart nanomedicine different products are under trial phase, various preclinical test is done for procure the foremost effectiveness. The objective of this review article is to describe the different approaches for delivering drug in brain and also characterization of the effectiveness of V Smart nanomedicine with its significance.

Abstract HTML PDF
Journal Resources

Open Source


Abstracting and Indexing

Social Media