Development and Validation of a Densitometric HPTLC Method for Estimation of Resveratrol in Vitis vinifera Linn. and in a Polyherbal Formulation

Sagnik Haldar, Satyabrata Mohapatra, Rahul Singh

Pancharishta is an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation contains Draksha (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) as one of the key ingredients prescribed for digestive impairment, respiratory disorders and weakness. Draksha contains resveratrol as biologically active compounds. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the standardisation of bioactive marker compounds present in the polyherbal ayurvedic formulation like Pancharishta. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a HPTLC method for determination of resveratrol in both commercially available marketed formulation and the herbs used in the formulation. Quantification of bioactive marker resveratrol using HPTLC in Pancharishta had never been reported previously. The method employed silica gel precoated thin layer chromatography plates with 60F254 as the stationary phase. The respective mobile phases were used to develop the plates which separated bands according to the marker compound. Camag scanner IV was used for densitometric scanning. Further, the method was validated according to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Correlation coefficients were calculated from the standard graph of linearity. Accuracy, precision and recovery were all within the required limits. The developed HPTLC methods for bioactive marker compounds present in marketed formulations and herbs were found to be simple, accurate, precise and robust.

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Evaluation of the role of N-Terminal non-glycosylated peptide (Fraction V) as multifunctional linker and study of its effect on the electrochemical behaviour of redox substrate by using Screen Printed Electrodes

Sagarika Deepthy T, Kalyan Kumar Mistry, Monidipa Ghosh

Biological species detection by using screen printed electrodes (SPEs) is one of the important research areas for early-stage clinical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used for determining bioanalytes such as antigen, antibody, DNA, glucose in the sample solutions. Moreover, it has potential uses in food and beverage industries for detecting food allergens, pathogens, etc. and chemical industries for detecting various metal ions at precise levels for quality control. In this study we evaluated the effect of antigen and antibody concentration on the electrochemical behaviour of 3, 3’, 5, 5’tetramethylbenzidene (TMB) using commercial SPEs. We also investigated the role of N-Terminal non-glycosylated peptide (Fraction V) as a multifunctional linker between the electrode surface and the bioanalytes in the fabrication of the immunosensors. We also studied and compared the electrochemical response of TMB in three different commercial SPEs with the N-Terminal non-glycosylated peptide (Fraction V) as a crosslinker. This helps in the future development of Immunosensors for the diagnosis of many infectious and autoimmune diseases.

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Evaluation of Amaranthus viridis L. Leave Mucilage as Suspending Agent

Pravat Ranjan Guru and Amit Kumar Nayak

The present study was carried out to evaluate the mucilage extracted from Amaranthus viridis L. leaves (family: Amaranthaceae) as a new suspending agent. Zinc oxide (20% w/v) suspensions were formulated, where mucilage extracted from Amaranthus viridis L. leaves and gum tragacanth were utilized as suspending agents. The formulated suspensions were assessed for sedimentation parameters such as sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation and redispersibility. The results obtained indicated that the extracted Amaranthus viridis L. Leave mucilage could be employed as novel and useful suspending agents in pharmaceutical suspensions.

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Smart In-Situ Gels for Treatment of Glucoma

Anurupa Chowdhury, Sanchita Mandal

A series of progressive visual neuropathies known as glaucoma are defined by alterations in the optic nerve head as a result of retinal ganglion cell degeneration. It often happens when intraocular pressure rises over what a healthy eye can handle. Open-angle chronic glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and a significant public health issue. The first step in treating glaucoma is to utilise common eye drops that contain medications like prostaglandins, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, beta-blockers, etc. These eye drops generate lachrymal leakage, reduced corneal permeability, and repeated instillations, all of which contribute to poor availability. Ophthalmic in situ gels, which have recently been discovered by researchers, are among the greatest alternatives to eye drops that can be used to solve their drawbacks. Different polymers were used to create ophthalmic in situ gelling solutions that were pH-triggered, temperature-triggered, and ion activated. When administered into the eye, these formulations go through a phase transition from sol to gel and let the medicine stay in the body for longer. These formulations are also known as "smart gels" because they turn into gelling solutions when injected into the eyes. The idea of creating ocular in situ gels for the treatment of glaucoma is discussed in this article.

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Rational Use of Medicine: First Step towards Medication Safety

Suhrita Paul

Medically inappropriate, ineffective and economically inefficient use of drugs prevail worldwide. It is essential that medicines are prescribed and taken in a rational manner to ensure the best outcome of healthcare services. The current article briefly describes importance of rational use of medicines (RUM) and criteria for RUM. Additionally, the key reasons of irrational drug users are also discussed along with some examples. Some core policies to promote RUM have been described herein. It is inferred that RUM strategies should enhance effective, safe, and cost-effective use of medicines and at the same time, such strategies preserve the effectiveness of antimicrobials, and contribute to good health outcomes.

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Online pharmacy or e-pharmacy: A blessing or a curse?

Sudipta Dey

It has seen tremendous growth in the field of online purchase and affordable mobile data packages. Online Pharmacy is an internet-based vendor that sells medicines to customers on orders through mail, or online pharmacy web portals. There are different margins for each type of product, such as profit margins for generic medicines, OTC (over-the-counter) medicines, branded and prescription products. A prescription for medicines ordered is mandatory (except OTC products) must be verified and certified by the registered pharmacist before delivery with issue of a cash memo in detail about the medicines. Selling medicines to minors, banned drugs for curbing the illegal and clandestine trade of medicines through the websites is on its peak. Awareness about online purchase of medicines through a cautionary approach by the consumer/patient is fundamental to better patient management and avoidance of the ill consequences of self-medication. Present review is on the discussions of an adequate and effective legislation and oversight mechanism in place on the activities in this field to protect the consumers from the potential ill effects.

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Biochemical Characterization of an Aqueous Extract of Human Placenta: A Compendium

Piyali Datta Chakraborty

Placenta supplies all the nutrients and protective agents required for development of budding fetus. Being a rich source of many biologically active components, the extract of human placenta contains amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleotides, lipids, glycosaminoglycan, growth factors and other therapeutically active bioorganic compounds. Various extracts of placenta have been prepared, only an aqueous extract of human placenta has been shown to be of immense therapeutic value particularly in wound healing and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID). The composition of the extract of placenta tissue depends on the method of its preparation and accordingly they show different therapeutic activities. An aqueous extract of human placenta, the trade name is ‘Placentrex’ is used for wound healing including post-surgical dressings and high degree of burn injuries from distant past and it contains several bioactive therapeutic molecules. The injectable preparation of the drug has potent curative effect on pelvic inflammatory diseases also. In this review the extensive biochemical characterization of this indigenous preparation of aqueous extract of human placenta (i.e. drug Placentrex) and its therapeutic efficacy has been described.

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Monitoring Adverse Drug reactions: Milestones achieved

Somnath Basu

Mankind with its existence requires medicines either to prevent, to get rid of from ailments or to maintain normal health from invaders. The idea of protecting us from adverse drug effects in such a way has come up with the advent of more and more new drug molecules. Need of vigilance is created to justify and verify the desired role of those new and old molecules. In fact, sense of vigilance activities on medicines has gained impetus in pharmaceutical or medical sciences. In such a way Pharmacovigilance now a days is a separate segment in monitoring the Adverse Drug Reactions.

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Understanding Silk, the queen of all fabrics: An excellent biopolymer in biomedicine

Debjani Roy

Tissue engineering (TE) is a multidisciplinary field involving engineering, biochemistry and biomedicine. TE combines cells with scaffold materials and necessary growth factors to regenerate or replace damaged or degenerated tissue or organ. Since the last few decades the scientists are in the search of natural biopolymers made by living organisms that can be used as a scaffold for tissue formation. Amongst the variety of biomaterials tested, silk fibroin (SF) based scaffold is a promising biomaterial that is being used for bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, skin regeneration. Silks are highly expressed protein polymer produced by silkworms during their pupal stage to protect the worm from the external environmental stress. The FDA approved silk fibroin (SF) is retaining its attention in biomedicine due to ease of its processing, excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and non-toxic degradability. Here we present application of the SF-based studies to understand the self-assembly of this protein and the development of advanced drug delivery devices based on SF hydrogel containing silk nanoparticles by controlling the self-assembling processes.

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Rational use of oxygen and oxygen delivery devices in COVID 19

Shah Newaz Ahmed and Anjan Adhikari

Oxygen is an emergency drug for respiratory patients with insufficient blood oxygen levels. Importance of oxygen in therapy increases in the recent pandemic. Around 5% of COVID19 patients develop respiratory distress due to immune-mediated diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary microthrombi. In the grave crisis observed during the COVID 19 pandemic, knowledge of the rational and proper use of oxygen and oxygen delivery devices have become of utmost necessity. During treatment of a COVID19 patient, the dose of oxygen inhalation in litres/min and the choice of delivery device became crucial & it should be titrated with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of haemoglobin. A trial and error method for escalation-de-escalation of therapy should be followed to achieve the target SpO2 (92-96%). The objective is to achieve the target SpO2 with the minimum fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) to maximise efficacy and minimise oxygen toxicity. Nasal prongs, face mask, venturi mask, non-rebreather mask, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) are the commonly used non-invasive devices for the delivery of oxygen. The maximum FiO2 achieved by these devices is 40, 55, 60, 100, 100 and 100 %, respectively. HFNC has an added advantage of delivering warm humidified oxygen which has respiratory epithelium protective effect. Patients not responding to conventional oxygen therapy can be given a trial of awake prone positioning to improve oxygenation. Similarly, BiPAP may be tried in conscious patients with preserved breathing strength, before the use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) becomes inevitable. The majority of patients recover with proper and rational use of non-invasive oxygen therapy refuting the need for IMV which are associated with significant mortality and morbidity.

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Tylenol Tragedy

Bedadyuti Chakraborty

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